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Warner, M.E., Zhang, X. and González-Rivas, M. 2020. Which States and Cities Protect Residents from Water Shutoffs in the COVID-19 Pandemic? forthcoming, Utilities Policy.

Many U.S. states and cities have imposed water disconnection moratoriums during the COVID-19 pandemic.  Using logistic and Cox Proportional-Hazards models, we assess factors that differentiate which governments imposed moratoriums. States which have economic regulation of private water utilities were more likely to impose moratoriums, and those with higher COVID-19 case rates imposed moratoriums earlier. States with unified Republican Control and cities with more 2016 Trump voters were less likely to impose moratoriums on water disconnection.  Cities in states without statewide moratoriums, were more likely to impose moratoriums if they had higher income, more minority residents, and more income inequality.

35 states and over 400 cities implemented moratoriums on water disconnections during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Moratoriums were more likely in states with higher COVID-19 case rates and cities with greater need and capacity.
Moratoriums were less likely in states and cities with Republican control.

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Subject: COVID-19