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Warner, Mildred and Lingwen Zheng: 2011. "Economic Development Strategies for Recessionary Times: Survey Results from 2009," in The ICMA Municipal Year Book 2011 (Washington, D.C.: ICMA, 2011), 33-42.

In response to the recession, local governments’ use of business incentives rose from 72% of respondents in 2004 to 95% in 2009. The majority of respondents (73%) give top priority to programs supporting quality of life (education, recreation, arts and culture), high-quality physical infrastructure (59%), and affordable housing (48%). Sixty percent of respondents reported using clawback agreements, which require firms to pay back incentives if they do not deliver the promised employment benefits.

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Subject: Economic Development