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Warner, M.E. and Amir Hefetz 2009. Cooperative Competition: Alternative Service Delivery, 2002-2007 in The Municipal Year Book 2009. Washington, DC: International City County Management Association.

ICMA has been tracking local government use of alterative service delivery mechanisms since 1982. In prior surveys, for profit contracting was typically one or two percentage points higher than intergovernmental contracting, but in the 2007 survey this is no longer the case. Learning from their experience with for profit and mixed contracting, local governments are now using intergovernmental contracting as the preferred contracting alternative. The 2007 survey shows direct public delivery and mixed public-private delivery have fallen back to their 1997 levels and for profit privatization and non profit contracting are flat. What has grown is inter-governmental contracting. However, lack of sufficient private competition remains a problem, and monitoring service quality and citizen satisfaction is getting less attention than in 2002. Failure to adequately monitor contracts typically leads to reductions in future contracting.

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Subject: Privatization